A general view of CD33+ leukemic stem cells and CAR-T cells as interesting targets in acute myeloblatsic leukemia therapy

Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) is the most frequent acute leukemia in adulthood with very poor overall survival rates. In the past few decades, significant progresses had led to the findings of new therapeutic approaches and the better understanding of the molecular complexity of this hematologic malignancy. Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) play a key role in the initiation, progression, regression, and drug resistance of different types of leukemia. The cellular and molecular characteristics of LSCs and their mechanism in the development of leukemia had not yet been specified. Therefore, determining their cellular and molecular characteristics and creating new approaches for targeted therapy of LSCs is crucial for the future of leukemia research. For this reason, the recognition of surface maker targets on the cell surface of LSCs has attracted much attention. CD33 has been detected on blasts in most AML patients, making them an interesting target for AML therapy. Genetic engineering of T cells with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T cell therapy) is a novel therapeutic strategy. It extends the range of antigens available for use in adoptive T-cell immunotherapy. This review will focus on CAR-T cell approaches as well as monoclonal antibody (mAB)-based therapy, the two antibody-based therapies utilized in AML treatment.

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